Interfractional trend analysis of dose differences based on 2D transit portal dosimetry

L. C. G. G. Persoon, S. M. J. J. G. Nijsten, F. J. Wilbrink, M. Podesta, J. A. D. Snaith, T. Lustberg, W. J. C. van Elmpt, F. van Gils, F. Verhaegen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Dose delivery of a radiotherapy treatment can be influenced by a number of factors. It has been demonstrated that the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is valuable for transit portal dosimetry verification. Patient related dose differences can emerge at any time during treatment and can be categorized in two types: (1) systematic-appearing repeatedly, (2) random-appearing sporadically during treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate how systematic and random information appears in 2D transit dose distributions measured in the EPID plane over the entire course of a treatment and how this information can be used to examine interfractional trends, building toward a methodology to support adaptive radiotherapy. To create a trend overview of the interfractional changes in transit dose, the predicted portal dose for the different beams is compared to a measured portal dose using a gamma evaluation. For each beam of the delivered fraction, information is extracted from the gamma images to differentiate systematic from random dose delivery errors. From the systematic differences of a fraction for a projected anatomical structures, several metrics are extracted like percentage pixels with vertical bar gamma vertical bar > 1. We demonstrate for four example cases the trends and dose difference causes which can be detected with this method. Two sample prostate cases show the occurrence of a random and systematic difference and identify the organ that causes the difference. In a lung cancer case a trend is shown of a rapidly diminishing atelectasis (lung fluid) during the course of treatment, which was detected with this trend analysis method. The final example is a breast cancer case where we show the influence of set-up differences on the 2D transit dose. A method is presented based on 2D portal transit dosimetry to record dose changes throughout the course of treatment, and to allow trend analysis of dose discrepancies. We show in example cases that this method can identify the causes of dose delivery differences and that treatment adaptation can be triggered as a result. It provides an important element toward informed decision-making for adaptive radiotherapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6445-6458
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2012

Cite this