Interactive three-dimensional teaching models of the female and male pelvic floor

Yi Wu, Jill P. J. M. Hikspoors, Greet Mommen, Noshir F. Dabhoiwala, Xin Hu, Li-Wen Tan, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Wouter H. Lamers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Controversies regarding structure and function of the pelvic floor persist because of its poor accessibility and complex anatomical architecture. Most data are based on dissection. This “surgical” approach requires profound prior knowledge, because applying the scalpel precludes a “second look.” The “sectional” approach does not entail these limitations, but requires segmentation of structures and three‐dimensional reconstruction. This approach has produced several “Visible Human Projects.” We dealt with limited spatial resolution and difficult‐to‐segment structures by proceeding from clear‐cut to more fuzzy boundaries and comparing segmentation between investigators. We observed that the bicipital levator ani muscle consisted of pubovisceral and puborectal portions; that the pubovisceral muscle formed, together with rectococcygeal and rectoperineal muscles, a rectal diaphragm; that the external anal sphincter consisted of its subcutaneous portion and the puborectal muscle only; that the striated urethral sphincter had three parts, of which the middle (urethral compressor) was best developed in females and the circular lower (“membranous”) best in males; that the rectourethral muscle, an anterior extension of the rectal longitudinal smooth muscle, developed a fibrous node in its center (perineal body); that the perineal body was much better developed in females than males, so that the rectourethral subdivision into posterior rectoperineal and anterior deep perineal muscles was more obvious in females; that the superficial transverse perineal muscle attached to the fibrous septa of the ischioanal fat; and that the uterosacral ligaments and mesorectal fascia colocalized. To facilitate comprehension of the modified topography we provide interactive 3D‐PDFs that are freely available for teaching purposes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-285
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Anatomy
Volume33
Issue number2
Early online date19 Nov 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Keywords

  • adiposity
  • levator ani muscle
  • anal sphincter
  • rectourethral muscle
  • perineal body
  • urethral sphincter
  • sexual dimorphism
  • vaginal support
  • LEVATOR ANI MUSCLE
  • ANAL-SPHINCTER COMPLEX
  • TOMOGRAPHIC ANATOMY
  • TOPOGRAPHIC ANATOMY
  • URETHRAL SPHINCTER
  • TISSUE
  • RECTOURETHRALIS
  • MORPHOLOGY
  • ANTERIOR
  • JAPANESE

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