Inter-firm R&D partnering in pharmaceutical biotechnology since 1975: trends, patterns and networks

J. Hagedoorn, A.H.W.M. Roijakkers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This paper analyses a large, longitudinal database on inter-firm r&d partnerships formed in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry since 1975. Our research indicates an overall growth in the number of annually, newly established r&d partnerships where research partners consistently prefer contractual partnerships to equity-based alliances. In the networks that develop through these r&d partnerships, small, entrepreneurial biotechnological companies take a leading role during the 1980s when biotechnology first became relevant for the pharmaceutical industry. The 1990s, however, show a different pattern with established, large pharmaceutical companies becoming more dominant, acting as nodal players with multiple partnerships with a variety of other companies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-446
JournalResearch Policy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006

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