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Aims: Type 2 diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are associated with cognitive impairment. Experimental studies indicate that insulin signaling in the brain is related to cognitive performance. Here we evaluated whether insulin-related variables contribute to the variance in cognitive performance among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 806 individuals with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 +/- 8 years, HbAlc 6.9 +/- 1.1%) completed a neuropsychological test battery. Insulin-related variables evaluated were: fasting plasma insulin, C-peptide, and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2-IR; in individuals without insulin treatment; n = 641). The unadjusted coefficient of determination (R-2), obtained from multiple linear regression analyses, was used to estimate the proportion of variance in cognition explained by insulin-related variables. Results: Sex, age, and educational level together explained 18.0% (R-2) of the variance in memory function, 26.5% in information processing speed, and 22.8% in executive function and attention. Fasting insulin, C-peptide, or HOMA2-IR did not increase the explained variance (maximum Delta R-2 0.3%, P >= 0.14). Similar results were obtained when insulin-related variables were added to models that additionally included glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and depression. Conclusions: Our results show that measures of peripheral insulin resistance are unrelated to cognitive performance among individuals with adequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)824-830
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Cognitive performance
  • Fasting insulin
  • C-peptide
  • Insulin resistance

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