Empirical research has revealed some regularities regarding the innovation that takes place over the industry life-cycle. First, innovation is high when an industry is young and low when the industry matures, and second, product innovation decreases with industry maturity, while process innovation increases. The implications of these regularities are profound, but evidence is to date largely case based and it is hard to generalize and draw policy conclusions. We use a flexible measure of maturity and a novel modeling approach to investigate innovation patterns for 21 European manufacturing industries. Our results strongly support both assertions and lend support to life-cycle based R&D-policy. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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