Informal caregivers of people with heart failure and resilience: A convergent mixed methods study

A. Durante*, Y. Ahtisham, A. Cuoco, J. Boyne, B. Brawner, R. Juarez-Vela, E. Vellone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Aim To develop a comprehensive understanding of resilience and its associated factors among informal caregivers of people with heart failure. Design Transnational multicentre convergent mixed methods approach. Methods This study was conducted in three European countries: Italy, Spain and the Netherlands; during February 2017 and December 2018. In total, 195 caregivers completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Caregiver Burden Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. From a nested sample 50 caregivers participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, multiple regression and joint displays. Results The caregivers' mean age was over 60 years. The quantitative results showed that caregivers experienced anxiety and depression regardless of a good score of resilience and moderate level of burden. Regression analysis showed that the resilience was associated with caregiver depression. From qualitative findings three resilience inhibiting (psychological outlook, physical weariness and affective state) and two promoting factors (community interconnectedness and self-comforting activities) were generated. Mixed analysis confirmed that depression decreased caregivers' resilience. Conclusions Caregivers of people with heart failure experience continuous stress and anxiety resulting in reduced resilience. Collaborative efforts are needed to build multifaceted interventions and programs to enhance caregivers' resilience by targeting the factors identified in this study. Impact The quality of informal caregiving is affected by the resilience of caregivers. No research has explored the resilience levels and its factors in this population. Depression, psychological outlook, physical weariness and affective state are negative factors of caregivers' resilience. Personal strategies combined with social and community support and belongingness enhance caregivers' resilience. Community care organizations and hospitals could establish alliances to develop programs for enhancing caregivers' resilience.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-275
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number1
Early online date19 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • caregiving
  • chronic illness
  • community care
  • family care
  • heart failure
  • mixed methods design
  • nursing home care
  • qualitative approaches
  • quality of life
  • quantitative approaches

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