Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) pdm09 among children during school-based outbreaks in the 2016-2017 season in Beijing, China

Li Zhang, Wim van der Hoek, Thomas Krafft, Eva Pilot, Liselotte van Astenc, Ge Lin, Shuangsheng Wu, Wei Duan, Peng Yang*, Quanyi Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

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6 Citations (Web of Science)


Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) has been provided free-of-charge to primary, middle school and high school students in Beijing. However, there have been few school-based studies on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In this report we estimated influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness among school children in Beijing, China during the 2016-2017 influenza season. The VE of 2016-2017 TIV against laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection among school-age children was assessed through a case-control design. Conditional logistic regression was conducted on matched case-control sets to estimate VE. The effect of prior vaccination on current VE was also examined. All 176 samples tested positive for influenza A virus with the positive rate of 55.5%. The average coverage rate of 2016-2017 TIV among students across the 37 schools was 30.6%. The fully adjusted VE of 2016-2017 TIV against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 69% (95% CI: 51 to 81): 60% (95% CI: -15 to 86) for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 73% (95% CI: 52 to 84) for influenza A(H3N2). The overall VE for receipt of 2015-2016 vaccination only, 2016-2017 vaccination only, and vaccinations in both seasons was 46% (95% CI: -5 to 72), 77% (95% CI: 58 to 87), and 57% (95%CI: 17 to 78), respectively. Conclusions: Our study during school outbreaks found that VE of 2016-2017 TIV was moderate against influenza A(H3N2) as well as A(H1N1)pdm09viruses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)816-822
Number of pages7
JournalHuman Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Issue number4
Early online date2 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2020


  • Influenza
  • vaccine effectiveness
  • school
  • children
  • outbreak
  • China

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