Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the infrarenal neck length on clinical outcome after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods: Data were analyzed from 3499 patients enrolled in the EUROSTAR registry between January 1999 and April 2005 who underwent EVAR with a Talent or Zenith endograft and had detailed morphological data recorded. The study cohort was divided into 3 groups according to infrarenal neck length: >15 mm (reference group A, n=2822), 11 to 15 mm (group B, n=485), and </=10 mm (group C, n=192). Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate differences in clinical outcomes among the study groups. Results: After correction for confounders, proximal type I endoleak within 30 days occurred in 10.9% of group C compared to 2.6% of group A (OR 4.46, 95% CI 2.61 to 7.61). Within 48 months of follow-up (median 12 months), the incidence of proximal endoleaks was higher in groups B (9.6%; HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.38) and C (11.3%; HR 2.132, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.60) compared to group A (3.4%). Conclusion: Our study indicates that endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms with infrarenal neck length <15 mm is associated with significantly increased risk of short- and midterm proximal endoleaks after EVAR. The greater risk of proximal endoleaks should be weighed against the risks of alternative treatment modalities.