Introduction: Commonly used clinical models for survival prediction after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BMs) are limited by the lack of individual risk scores and disproportionate prognostic groups. In this study, two nomograms were developed to overcome these limitations.
Methods: 495 patients with BMs of NSCLC treated with SRS for a limited number of BMs in four Dutch radiation oncology centers were identified and divided in a training cohort (n = 214, patients treated in one hospital) and an external validation cohort n = 281, patients treated in three other hospitals). Using the training cohort, nomograms were developed for prediction of early death (12 months) with prognostic factors for survival. Accuracy of prediction was defined as the area under the curve (AUC) by receiver operating characteristics analysis for prediction of early death and long term survival. The accuracy of the nomograms was also tested in the external validation cohort.
Results: Prognostic factors for survival were: WHO performance status, presence of extracranial metastases, age, GTV largest BM, and gender. Number of brain metastases and primary tumor control were not prognostic factors for survival. In the external validation cohort, the nomogram predicted early death statistically significantly better (p <0.05) than the unfavorable groups of the RPA, DS-GPA, GGS, SIR, and Rades 2015 (AUC = 0.70 versus range AUCs = 0.51-0.60 respectively). With an AUC of 0.67, the other nomogram predicted 1 year survival statistically significantly better (p <0.05) than the unfavorable groups of four models (range AUCs = 0.57-0.61), except for the SIR (AUC = 0.64, p = 0.34). The models are available on www.predictcancer.org.
Conclusion: The nomograms predicted early death and long-term survival more accurately than commonly used prognostic scores after SRS for a limited number of BMs of NSCLC. Moreover these nomograms enable individualized probability assessment and are easy into use in routine clinical practice. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Individualized brain metastases
- Stereotactic radiosurgery
- Prognostic models
- LEARNING HEALTH-CARE
- BODY RADIOTHERAPY