India's National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance: a critical perspective

M. Nair*, M.P. Zeegers, G.M. Varghese, S. Burza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely recognised as a global health threat, which is projected to account for more deaths than cancer by 2050. The Government of India has formulated a National Action Plan to tackle AMR (NAP-AMR), largely modelled on the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on AMR. While the NAP-AMR successfully mirrors the Global Action Plan and lays out ambitious goals, we find that the lack of financial allocation across states, poor enforcement and inadequate multisectoral co-ordination have hampered progress. A broader focus on improving infrastructure for water and sanitation, linking the issue of AMR to existing vertical health programmes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB), prioritising infection prevention and control, strengthening the frontline healthcare workforce in rural and peri-urban settings to reduce reliance on antibiotics, leveraging pointof-care testing and mobile app-based health interventions for diagnosis and surveillance, and adopting a socioecological approach to health and development would help to create an enabling environment for concrete action on AMR in India. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-238
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • India
  • Policy
  • National action plan


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