OBJECTIVES: 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a novel psychoactive substance with a pharmacological profile and reported subjective effects (e.g., empathy) intermediate between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine. Studies have shown that MDMA and amphetamine increase emotional empathy without affecting cognitive empathy; MDMA simultaneously leads to elevated levels of oxytocin, unrelated to its behavioral effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the reported enhancement of empathy by 4-FA, to assess its effects on oxytocin, and to test potential associations between both.
METHODS: Twelve healthy poly-drug users were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled two-way crossover study. Treatments were 4-FA (100 mg) and placebo; empathy was assessed by means of the multifaceted empathy test, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment administration to determine oxytocin concentrations.
RESULTS: 4-FA reduced cognitive empathy, whereas emotional empathy was left unaffected. One hour after treatment, plasma oxytocin levels were significantly increased compared with placebo. Behavioral and hormonal effects were unrelated.
CONCLUSION: Although 4-FA shares its pharmacological mechanism with MDMA and amphetamine, current findings seem to indicate that it affects empathy differently. The 4-FA-induced increase in oxytocin levels was independent of behavioral effects, which confirms previous findings that drug-induced effects on peripheral oxytocin levels are not associated with empathy.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Human Psychopharmacology-Clinical and Experimental|
|Early online date||25 Oct 2018|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2018|
- INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN
- MULTIFACETED EMPATHY
- POSITIVE EMOTIONS
- SOCIAL COGNITION
- cognitive and emotional empathy
- multifaceted empathy test
- novel psychoactive substance
- peripheral oxytocin concentration