Background: Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is caused by deletion/mutation of the ZEB2 gene on chromosome 2q22. MWS is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, severe intellectual disability and other anomalies, e.g. seizures and/or Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Most individuals have a sociable demeanor, but one third show psychological problems.
Aims: The aim was to investigate incontinence and psychological problems in MWS.
Methods and procedures: 26 children (4-12 years), 13 teens (13-17 years) and 8 adults (>18 years) were recruited through a MWS support group. The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) were completed by parents or care-givers.
Outcomes and results: 97.7% of persons with MWS had incontinence (nocturnal enuresis 74.4%; daytime urinary incontinence 76.2%; fecal incontinence 81.4%). Incontinence remained high over age groups (children 95.8%, teens 100%, adults 100%). 46.2% of children, 25% of teens and 37.5% of adults exceeded the clinical cut-off on the DBC. The ability to use the toilet for micturition improved with age.
Conclusions and implications: MWS incontinence rates are very high. All had physical disabilities including anomalies of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Due to the high prevalence rates, a screening for incontinence and psychological problems in MWS is recommended. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Mowat-Wilson Syndrome
- Urinary incontinence
- Fecal incontinence