Inclusive growth and innovation : A dynamic simultaneous equations model on a panel of countries

G. Bresson, J.-M. Etienne, P. Mohnen

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Based on the work of Anand et al. (2013) we measure inclusive income growth, which combines growth in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and growth in the equity of the income distribution. Extending the work of Causa et al. (2014), we estimate a dynamic simultaneous structural equations model of GDP per capita and inclusive income on panel data for 63 countries over the 1990-2013 period. We estimate both equations in error correction form by difference GMM (generalized method of moments). Among the explanatory variables of the level and the distribution of GDP per capita we include R&D (research and development) expenditure per capita. In OECD countries we obtain a large positive effect of R&D on GDP. R&D is found to have a positive effect on the social mobility index but its impact on the income equity index at first decreases, then switches around to become slightly positive in the long run. In non- OECD countries, R&D is found to decrease inclusive income, mostly through a negative growth effect but also because of a slightly increasing income inequity effect.

data source: Macro data (World Bank, etc)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalSTI Policy Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


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