Incidence, prognostic factors, and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients: data from two prospective cohort studies

R.J. Eck*, L. Hulshof, R. Wiersema, C.H.L. Thio, B. Hiemstra, N.C.G. van den Oever, R.O.B. Gans, I.C.C. van der Horst, K. Meijer, F. Keus

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, incidence, prognostic factors, and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients receiving contemporary thrombosis prophylaxis.Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of two prospective cohort studies. The outcomes of interest were in-hospital pulmonary embolism or lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (PE-LDVT), in-hospital nonleg deep vein thrombosis (NLDVT), and 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between predefined baseline prognostic factors and PE-LDVT or NLDVT. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between PE-LDVT or NLDVT and 90-day mortality.Results: A total of 2208 patients were included. The prevalence of any venous thromboembolism during 3 months before ICU admission was 3.6% (95% CI 2.8-4.4%). Out of 2166 patients, 47 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.6-2.9%) developed PE-LDVT and 38 patients (1.8%; 95% CI 1.2-2.4%) developed NLDVT. Renal replacement therapy (OR 3.5 95% CI 1.4-8.6), respiratory failure (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.8), and previous VTE (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.7-7.7) were associated with PE-LDVT. Central venous catheters (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.7-17.8) and infection (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.3) were associated with NLDVT. Occurrence of PE-LDVT but not NLDVT was associated with increased 90-day mortality (HR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.6, respectively, 0.92; 95% CI 0.41-2.1).Conclusion: Thrombotic events are common in critically ill patients, both before and after ICU admittance. Development of PE-LDVT but not NLDVT was associated with increased mortality. Prognostic factors for developing PE-LDVT or NLDVT despite prophylaxis can be identified at ICU admission and may be used to select patients at higher risk in future randomized clinical trials.
Original languageEnglish
Article number27
Number of pages9
JournalCritical Care
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • Cohort studies
  • Critical care
  • Critical illness
  • DEEP-VEIN THROMBOSIS
  • Embolism
  • MODELS
  • PREVALENCE
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS
  • VTE
  • Venous thromboembolism
  • cohort studies
  • critical care
  • critical illness
  • embolism
  • venous thromboembolism
  • GUIDELINES

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