AIMS: Repetitive conduction patterns in atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect anatomical structures harbouring preferential conduction paths and indicate the presence of stationary sources for AF. Recently, we demonstrated a novel technique to detect repetitive patterns in high-density contact mapping of AF. As a first step towards repetitive pattern mapping to guide AF ablation, we determined the incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in epicardial contact mapping of paroxysmal and persistent AF patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 256-channel mapping array was used to record epicardial left and right AF electrograms in persistent AF (persAF, n = 9) and paroxysmal AF (pAF, n = 11) patients. Intervals containing repetitive conduction patterns were detected using recurrence plots. Activation movies, preferential conduction direction, and average activation sequence were used to characterize and classify conduction patterns. Repetitive patterns were identified in 33/40 recordings. Repetitive patterns were more prevalent in pAF compared with persAF [pAF: median 59%, inter-quartile range (41-72) vs. persAF: 39% (0-51), P < 0.01], larger [pAF: = 1.54 (1.15-1.96) vs. persAF: 1.16 (0.74-1.56) cm2, P < 0.001), and more stable [normalized preferentiality (0-1) pAF: 0.38 (0.25-0.50) vs. persAF: 0.23 (0-0.33), P < 0.01]. Most repetitive patterns were peripheral waves (87%), often with conduction block (69%), while breakthroughs (9%) and re-entries (2%) occurred less frequently.
CONCLUSION: High-density epicardial contact mapping in AF patients reveals frequent repetitive conduction patterns. In persistent AF patients, repetitive patterns were less frequent, smaller, and more variable than in paroxysmal AF patients. Future research should elucidate whether these patterns can help in finding AF ablation targets.
- Atrial fibrillation
- Conduction patterns
- High-density epicardial
- Repetitive patterns
- atrial mapping