Matrix Gla-protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein that strongly inhibits arterial calcification. Vitamin K deficiency leads to production of inactive nonphosphorylated and uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP). The risk associated with dp-ucMGP in the population is unknown. In a Flemish population study, we measured circulating dp-ucMGP at baseline (1996-2011), genotyped MGP, recorded adverse health outcomes until December 31, 2012, and assessed the multivariable-adjusted associations of adverse health outcomes with dp-ucMGP. We applied a Mendelian randomization analysis using MGP genotypes as instrumental variables. Among 2318 participants, baseline dp-ucMGP averaged 3.61 mu g/L. Over 14.1 years (median), 197 deaths occurred, 58 from cancer and 70 from cardiovascular disease; 85 participants experienced a coronary event. The risk of death and non-cancer mortality curvilinearly increased (P = 0.13), the Mendelian randomization analysis suggested causality. Higher dp-ucMGP predicts total, non-cancer and cardiovascular mortality, but lower coronary risk. For non-cancer mortality and coronary events, these associations are likely causal.
- matrix Gla protein
- Mendelian randomization