In vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.): Phenolic compounds released and bioconverted by gut microbiota

Alicia P Cárdenas-Castro, Víctor M Zamora-Gasga, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Víctor M Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Koen Venema, Sonia G Sáyago-Ayerdi*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Two of the most important Mexican plant-foods are tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). In this study three objectives were followed: i) to evaluate the bioaccessible phenolic compounds (PC) in T and HT during upper gastrointestinal digestion, ii) to in vitro ferment the indigestible fractions of the samples to evaluate the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, iii) the microbial metabolites, bioconverted PC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during the fermentation. Vanillic acid was the most bioaccessible PC and after 48 h, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the most abundant microbial metabolite identified in both samples. The identification of VOCs belonging to terpenes (and derivatives) group in T and HT can be product of the microbial metabolism of carotenoids. The study shows new knowledge of the in vitro intestinal digestion and fermentation of T and HT final compounds with biological potential which should be evaluated in further studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130051
Pages (from-to)130051
Number of pages10
JournalFood Chemistry
Early online date11 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2021


  • (Physalis ixocarpa Brot
  • )
  • Bioaccessibility
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • gut microbiota

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