Implementing Experience Sampling Technology for Functional Analysis in Family Medicine - A Design Thinking Approach

Naomi E. M. Daniels*, Laura M. J. Hochstenbach, Marloes A. van Bokhoven, Anna J. H. M. Beurskens, Philippe A. E. G. Delespaul

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background A paradigm shift in health care from illness to wellbeing requires new assessment technologies and intervention strategies. Self-monitoring tools based on the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) might provide a solution. They enable patients to monitor both vulnerability and resilience in daily life. Although ESM solutions are extensively used in research, a translation from science into daily clinical practice is needed. Objective To investigate the redesign process of an existing platform for ESM data collection for detailed functional analysis and disease management used by psychological assistants to the general practitioner (PAGPs) in family medicine. Methods The experience-sampling platform was reconceptualized according to the design thinking framework in three phases. PAGPs were closely involved in co-creation sessions. In the 'understand' phase, knowledge about end-users' characteristics and current eHealth use was collected (nominal group technique - 2 sessions with N = 15). In the 'explore' phase, the key needs concerning the platform content and functionalities were evaluated and prioritized (empathy mapping - 1 session with N = 5, moderated user testing - 1 session with N = 4). In the 'materialize' phase, the adjusted version of the platform was tested in daily clinical practice (4 months with N = 4). The whole process was extensively logged, analyzed using content analysis, and discussed with an interprofessional project group. Results In the 'understand' phase, PAGPs emphasized the variability in symptoms reported by patients. Therefore, moment-to-moment assessment of mood and behavior in a daily life context could be valuable. In the 'explore' phase, (motivational) functionalities, technological performance and instructions turned out to be important user requirements and could be improved. In the 'materialize' phase, PAGPs encountered barriers to implement the experience-sampling platform. They were insufficiently facilitated by the regional primary care group and general practitioners. Conclusion The redesign process in co-creation yielded meaningful insights into the needs, desires and daily routines in family medicine. Severe barriers were encountered related to the use and uptake of the experience-sampling platform in settings where health care professionals lack the time, knowledge and skills. Future research should focus on the applicability of this platform in family medicine and incorporate patient experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2782
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 11 Dec 2019


  • development
  • ecological momentary assessment
  • Experience Sampling Method
  • mHealth
  • family medicine
  • redesign
  • self-monitoring
  • telemedicine


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