Implementation of HPV Self-sampling in Cervical Screening Programs Increases Participation Rates: A Literature Review

C.E. Schmeink*, R.L.M. Bekkers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


IntroductionCervical cancer screening primarily with high risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) proved to be more sensitive, in detecting CIN grade 2 or worse (CIN2 +), than the traditional cervical cytology. Primary hr-HPV detection opened up the possibility for vaginal self-sampling, as hr-HPV detection is easy to perform on a vaginal self-sample and showed to be reliable. The aim of this review is to explore the role of HPV self-sampling as a strategy to increase the participation rate in cervical screening programs. MethodsPubMed search on self-sampling HPV; including articles published within last 10 years; Meta-analyse, Randomized Controlled Trial, Review or Systematic Review.ResultsThe literature shows that HPV vaginal self-sampling is feasible, highly acceptable and above all has a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting HPV and CIN2 +. Furthermore, HPV self-sampling followed by Pap smear triage in hr-HPV positive women is cost-effective. Additionally offering mailed self-sample kits, ideally in combination with education, has been proven to improve participation and subsequently CIN2+ detection. ConclusionImplementation of HPV self-sampling in cervical screening programs offers opportunities to reach under screened women, not only in high-income countries, but especially in low- and medium-income countries and among ethnic minority women.
Original languageEnglish
Article number54
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021


  • HPV self-sampling
  • Underscreened women
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • RISK


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