Nanoparticles degradable upon external stimuli combine pharmacokinetic features of both small molecules as well as large nanoparticles. However, despite promising preclinical results, several redox responsive disulphide-linked nanoparticles failed in clinical translation, mainly due to their unexpected in vivo behavior. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most evaluated antioxidants responsible for disulfide degradation. Herein, the impact of GSH on the in vivo behavior of redox-sensitive nanogels under physiological and modulated conditions is investigated. Labelling of nanogels with a DNA-intercalating dye and a radioisotope allows visualization of the redox responsiveness at the cellular and the systemic levels, respectively. In vitro, efficient cleavage of disulphide bonds of nanogels is achieved by manipulation of intracellular GSH concentration. While in vivo, the redox-sensitive nanogels undergo, to a certain extent, premature degradation in circulation leading to rapid renal elimination. This instability is modulated by transient inhibition of GSH synthesis with buthioninsulfoximin. Altered GSH concentration significantly changes the in vivo pharmacokinetics. Lower GSH results in higher elimination half-life and altered biodistribution of the nanogels with a different metabolite profile. These data provide strong evidence that decreased nanogel degradation in blood circulation can limit the risk of premature drug release and enhance circulation half-life of the nanogel.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 5 Apr 2018|
- redox-sensitive nanogels
- small animal positron emission tomography
- RADIOLABELED NANOGELS
- INTRACELLULAR DRUG
- DISULFIDE BONDS