BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A vast amount of memory and meta-memory research in schizophrenia shows that these patients perform worse on memory accuracy and hold false information with strong conviction compared to healthy controls. So far, studies investigating these effects mainly used traditional static stimulus material like word lists or pictures. The question remains whether these memory and meta-memory effects are also present in (1) more near-life dynamic situations (i.e., using standardized videos) and (2) whether emotionality has an influence on memory and meta-memory deficits (i.e., response confidence) in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy controls were administered a newly developed emotional video paradigm with five videos differing in emotionality (positive, two negative, neutral, and delusional related). After each video, a recognition task required participants to make old-new discriminations along with confidence ratings, investigating memory accuracy and meta-memory deficits in more dynamic settings. RESULTS: For all but the positively valenced video, patients recognized fewer correct items compared to healthy controls, and did not differ with regard to the number of false memories for related items. In line with prior findings, schizophrenia patients showed more high-confident responses for misses and false memories for related items but displayed underconfidence for hits when compared to healthy controls, independent of emotionality. LIMITATIONS: Limited sample size and control group; combined valence and arousal indicator for emotionality; general psychopathology indicator. CONCLUSIONS: Emotionality differentially moderated memory accuracy, biases in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Moreover, the meta-memory deficits identified in static paradigms also manifest in more dynamic settings near-life settings and seem to be independent of emotionality.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
|Published - Mar 2013
- Memory bias
- FALSE MEMORIES