Impact of Deficiency of Intrinsic Coagulation Factors XI and XII on Ex Vivo Thrombus Formation and Clot Lysis

José W P Govers-Riemslag, Joke Konings, Judith M E M Cosemans, Johanna P van Geffen, Bas de Laat, Johan W M Heemskerk, Yesim Dargaud, Hugo Ten Cate*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The contributions of coagulation factor XI (FXI) and FXII to human clot formation is not fully known. Patients with deficiency in FXI have a variable mild bleeding risk, whereas FXII deficiency is not associated with bleeding. These phenotypes make FXII and FXI attractive target proteins in anticoagulant therapy. Here, we studied the mechanisms of fibrin clot formation, stability, and fibrinolytic degradation in patients with severe FXI or FXII deficiency. Thrombin generation was triggered in platelet-poor (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with the biological FXII trigger sulfatides. Intrinsic and extrinsic thrombus formation and degradation in whole blood were determined with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Clot formation under flow was assessed by perfusion of whole blood over collagen microspots with(out) tissue factor (TF). Thrombin generation and clot formation were delayed in FXII- and FXI-deficient patients triggered with sulfatides. In FXI-deficient plasma, this delay was more pronounced in PRP compared to PPP. In whole blood of FXII-deficient patients, clots were smaller but resistance to fibrinolysis was normal. In whole blood of FXI-deficient patients, clot formation was normal but the time to complete fibrinolysis was prolonged. In flow chamber experiments triggered with collagen/TF, platelet coverage was reduced in severe compared with moderate FXI deficiency, and fibrin formation was impaired. We conclude that quantitative defects in FXII and FXI have a substantial impact on contact activation-triggered coagulation. Furthermore, FXI deficiency has a dose-dependent suppressing effect on flow-mediated and platelet/TF-dependent clot formation. These last data highlight the contribution of particularly FXI to hemostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e273-e285
Number of pages13
JournalTH open : companion journal to thrombosis and haemostasis
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

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