Impact of calorie restriction on energy metabolism in humans

J. Most, L.M. Redman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) is the most potent, non-pharmacological intervention to support metabolic health. The effects of calorie restriction exceed weight loss. Consistent throughout many studies, calorie restriction induces a reduction in energy expenditure that is larger than the loss of metabolic mass, i.e. fat-free mass and fat mass, can explain. Per prevailing theories of mammalian aging, this disproportionate reduction in metabolic rate, defined as metabolic adaptation, reduces oxidative damage and thereby delays age-associated declines in physiological function. The aim of this narrative review is to investigate the origins of CR-induced metabolic adaptation. From a physiological standpoint this likely relates to the composition of body weight loss, reductions in insulin secretion, thyroid and leptin concentrations, and increased mitochondrial energy efficiency. Behavioral factors including physical activity and eating behaviors likely also play a role, specifically to prevent weight regain. Future studies are required to understand the interindividual differences in the response to CR, e.g. by sex, physical activity, or mitochondrial capacity, and to assess the long-term implications of CR for weight regain.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110875
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume133
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020

Keywords

  • adaptive thermogenesis
  • body-composition
  • calorie restriction
  • energy efficiency
  • energy requirements
  • gut microbiota
  • insulin sensitivity
  • life-span
  • long-term persistence
  • physical-activity
  • resveratrol supplementation
  • skeletal-muscle
  • sleeve gastrectomy
  • weight loss
  • weight regain
  • weight-loss
  • LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE
  • BODY-COMPOSITION
  • Energy requirements
  • Calorie restriction
  • RESVERATROL SUPPLEMENTATION
  • LIFE-SPAN
  • Weight regain
  • Weight loss
  • WEIGHT-LOSS
  • GUT MICROBIOTA
  • INSULIN SENSITIVITY
  • Adaptive thermogenesis
  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY
  • Energy efficiency
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY

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