Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

Rick de Graaf, Mark de Wolf, Anna M. Sailer*, Jorinde van Laanen, Cees Wittens, Houman Jalaie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Different techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions. Between 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents. Recanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 +/- A 438 days (range 7-1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 +/- A 118 (range 29-337) days. Stenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1198-1204
JournalCardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015


  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Inferior vena cava
  • Iliac vein
  • Stent


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