Ileal brake: A sensible food target for appetite control. A review.

J. Maljaars*, H.P. Peters, D.J. Mela, A.A. Masclee

*Corresponding author for this work

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    AB - With the rising prevalence of obesity and related health problems increases, there is increased interest in the gastrointestinal system as a possible target for pharmacological or food-based approaches to weight management. Recent studies have shown that under normal physiological situations undigested nutrients can reach the ileum, and induce activation of the so-called "ileal brake", a combination of effects influencing digestive process and ingestive behaviour. The relevance of the ileal brake as a potential target for weight management is based on several findings: First, activation of the ileal brake has been shown to reduce food intake and increase satiety levels. Second, surgical procedures that increase exposure of the ileum to nutrients produce weight loss and improved glycaemic control. Third, the appetite-reducing effect of chronic ileal brake activation appears to be maintained over time. Together, this evidence suggests that activation of the ileal brake is an excellent long-term target to achieve sustainable reductions in food intake. This review addresses the role of the ileal brake in gut function, and considers the possible involvement of several peptide hormone mediators. Attention is given to the ability of macronutrients to activate the ileal brake, and particularly variation attributable to the physicochemical properties of fats. The emphasis is on implications of ileal brake stimulation on food intake and satiety, accompanied by evidence of effects on glycaemic control and weight loss
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)271-281
    JournalPhysiology & Behavior
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008

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