IgG/IgM antiphospholipid antibodies present in the classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome: a critical review of their association with thrombosis

H. Kelchtermans*, L. Pelkmans, B. de Laat, K. M. Devreese

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

67 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Background Despite the update of the classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), difficulties persist in the identification of patients at risk for thrombosis. Current guidelines include assays detecting IgG/IgM anti-(2)-glycoprotein I and anti-cardiolipin antibodies, although the relevance of IgM antibodies has been debated. Objectives Through a review of the literature from 2001 to 2014, we aimed to formally establish the thrombotic risk stratification potential of IgM as compared with IgG anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Patients/methods One thousand two hundred and twenty-eight articles were selected by a computer-assisted search of the literature. Of the 177 studies that met our inclusion criteria, the clinical value of IgG/IgM aPLs was established through analysis of odds ratios for thrombosis or percentage of positives in the thrombotic population. Results/conclusions We clearly found more significant correlations with thrombosis for the IgG than for the IgM isotype. Nonetheless, in a minority of studies, significant associations with thrombosis were found for IgM but not IgG antibodies. The unavailability of paired results of IgG and IgM for each separate patient hampers evaluation of the added value of isolated IgM positivity. To fully take advantage of results obtained by future studies, we strongly encourage scientists to provide all studied information per patient. We planned a large multicenter study to investigate clinical associations of isolated/combined positivity for criteria/non-criteria aPLs. Importantly, because of the presence of non-pathogenic aPLs, quantitative assays are characterized by a high false-positivity rate. Optimization of functional assays, such as thrombin generation measuring the whole scheme of coagulation, may help to reduce APS-related morbidity and mortality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1530-1548
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016

Keywords

  • anti-cardiolipin
  • anti-phospholipid antibody
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • (2)-glycoprotein I
  • IgM

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