Purpose: In this systematic review, the existing evidence of available hypoxia-associated molecular response biomarkers in esophageal cancer (EC) patients is summarized and set into the context of the role of hypoxia in the prediction of esophageal cancer, treatment response and treatment outcome.
Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases using the keywords: hypoxia, esophagus, cancer, treatment outcome and treatment response. Eligible publications were independently evaluated by two reviewers. In total, 22 out of 419 records were included for systematic review. The described search strategy was applied weekly, with the last update being performed on April 3rd, 2017.
Results: In esophageal cancer, several (non-)invasive biomarkers for hypoxia could be identified. Independent prognostic factors for treatment response include HIF-1 alpha, CA IX, GLUT-1 overexpression and elevated uptake of the PET-tracer F-18-fluoroerythronitroimidazole (F-18-FETNIM). Hypoxia-associated molecular responses represents a clinically relevant phenomenon in esophageal cancer and detection of elevated levels of hypoxia-associated biomarkers and tends to be associated with poor treatment outcome (i.e., overall survival, disease-free survival, complete response and local control).
Conclusion: Evaluation of tumor micro-environmental conditions, such as intratumoral hypoxia, is important to predict treatment outcome and efficacy. Promising non-invasive imaging-techniques have been suggested to assess tumor hypoxia and hypoxia-associated molecular responses. However, extensive validation in EC is lacking. Hypoxia-associated markers that are independent prognostic factors could potentially provide targets for novel treatment strategies to improve treatment outcome. For personalized hypoxia-guided treatment, safe and reliable makers for tumor hypoxia are needed to select suitable patients. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Treatment outcome
- SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA
- ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR
- INDUCIBLE FACTOR (HIF)-1-ALPHA
- TUMOR HYPOXIA
- CONCURRENT CHEMORADIOTHERAPY
- ENHANCES RADIOSENSITIVITY
- BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION