How to Boost Positive Interpretations? A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation

Claudia Menne-Lothmann*, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Petra Hohn, Zuzana Kasanova, Simone P. Haller, Marjan Drukker, Jim van Os, Marieke Wichers, Jennifer Y. F. Lau

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The current meta-analysis explores the strength of effects of cognitive bias modification training for interpretation bias (CBM-I) on positive (i.e., adaptive) interpretations and mood as well as the training and sample characteristics influencing these effects. Data-bases were searched with the key words "interpret* bias AND training'' and "interpret* bias AND modif*''. Reference lists of identified articles were checked and authors of identified articles were contacted for further relevant articles and unpublished data. Studies were reviewed for inclusion with eligibility criteria being that the study (a) aimed to target interpretation biases through any kind of training, (b) assessed mood and/or interpretation bias as outcome measures, (c) allocated individuals to training conditions at random, and (d) recruited adult samples. A meta-analytic multilevel mixed-effects model was employed to assess standardized mean changes in interpretation bias, negative mood, and emotional reactivity. In addition, several training and sample characteristics were explored for their potential to enhance benign training effectiveness. On average, benign CBM-I resulted in an increase in positive interpretation bias (p
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere100925
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jun 2014

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