Aims Disturbed bladder sensations, or in broader terms, sensory dysfunctions are increasingly recognized as key elements in the origin and manifestation of symptom syndromes of urinary dysfunction. Adequate assessment of bladder sensation is crucial to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of urinary dysfunction. This manuscript summarizes the discussions of a think tank on How to measure bladder sensation held at the ICI-RS meeting in 2011. Methods: Based upon literature reviews on bladder sensation presented at the think tank in the ICI-RS meeting, discussions evolved which were summarized in the ICI-RS report. Different physicians/researchers further elaborated on this report, which is presented in this manuscript. Results: Bladder sensations are not merely the result of bladder distension. Other factors inside the bladder or bladder wall: central processing and/or cognitive manipulation may play an important role. Current methods to measure sensations such as urodynamics, voiding diaries, forced diuresis, electrical stimulation and brain imaging are likely sub-optimal as they only consider part of these factors in isolation. Conclusions: Different methods to measure bladder sensations have been described and are used in clinical practice. Current methods only address part of the parameters responsible for the generation and perception of urinary sensations. Further focused research is required, and several recommendations are provided. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:370-374, 2012.
- bladder sensation