How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

Bingtao Su, Naoko Koda, Pim Martens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p <0.05). This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0190781
Number of pages14
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2018

Keywords

  • UNIQUELY HUMAN EMOTIONS
  • SECONDARY EMOTIONS
  • SUBJECTIVE CLAIMS
  • ATTITUDES
  • WELFARE
  • GENDER
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Middle Aged
  • Cats/psychology
  • Male
  • Emotions
  • Dogs/psychology
  • Animals
  • Bonding, Human-Pet
  • Female
  • Perception
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Pets/psychology
  • Theory of Mind
  • Culture

Cite this

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title = "How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals",
abstract = "Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The {"}Pet Bonding Scale{"} (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1{\%} and 56.2{\%}, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p <0.05). This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.",
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How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals. / Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim.

In: PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1, 0190781, 05.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

AU - Su, Bingtao

AU - Koda, Naoko

AU - Martens, Pim

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Y1 - 2018/1/5

N2 - Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p <0.05). This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

AB - Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p <0.05). This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

KW - UNIQUELY HUMAN EMOTIONS

KW - SECONDARY EMOTIONS

KW - SUBJECTIVE CLAIMS

KW - ATTITUDES

KW - WELFARE

KW - GENDER

KW - Humans

KW - Japan

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Cats/psychology

KW - Male

KW - Emotions

KW - Dogs/psychology

KW - Animals

KW - Bonding, Human-Pet

KW - Female

KW - Perception

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - Pets/psychology

KW - Theory of Mind

KW - Culture

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190781

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190781

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - PLOS ONE

JF - PLOS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 1

M1 - 0190781

ER -