Households' willingness to adopt greywater treatment technologies in a developing country: Exploring a modified theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model including personal norm

M. Oteng-Peprah*, N. de Vries, M.A. Acheampong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study explored willingness of households to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system using the theory of planned behaviour in its original form and an extended model including personal norms. The study was conducted among 478 household heads in the central region of Ghana. The results indicate the original theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model explained about 54% of the variance in respondents' intentions to adopt this system and the extended model which includes personal norms explained 59% of the intentions. The extended model turned out to be the better model to predict willingness to adopt this household greywater and treatment system. The findings of this study shed more light on the role of personal norms in households' willingness to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system and may inform interventions aimed at promoting such systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article number109807
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2020


  • greywater
  • households' willingness
  • intentions
  • personal norms
  • pro-environmental behavior
  • theory of planned behaviour
  • waste-water
  • Households' willingness
  • Greywater
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • Personal norms

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