HIV/AIDS has been a clear threat to human existence for decades, but it was not until 2000 that this was finally recognized by the global community. This innovative comparative study comes at an opportune time to review the HIV/AIDS policies enacted by the international community in the last fifteen years with a special focus on the two Asian countries most affected by HIV/AIDS, China and India. Both countries are rapidly modernizing in the domestic sphere as they forge and strengthen political, economic, and social ties with the global community. Both also face significant internal constraints as they seek to balance their development needs with a pressing imperative to protect their respective populations. This book compares the policy approaches taken by China and India, illuminating the challenges they face as they grapple with this intractable disease and identifying best practices for dealing with HIV/AIDS in the developing world and beyond.