PURPOSE: To evaluate higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after implantation of Artiflex phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. METHODS: This retrospective comparative case series comprised 27 eyes (14 patients) that had Artiflex pIOL implantation and 22 eyes (13 patients) that had Artisan pIOL implantation. Refractive data, pupil size, IOL decentration, and HOA values were recorded and compared. Laboratory analysis was performed. Follow-up was 1 year. RESULTS: In the Artiflex group, the mean spherical equivalent (SE) changed from -9.95 diopters (D) +/- 1.43 (SD) (range -6.75 to -12.13 D) to -0.30 +/- 0.53 D (range -1.94 to 0.56 D). Postoperatively, trefoil-y increased (increase factor 1.73) and spherical aberration decreased (increase factor 0.55). The mean pIOL decentration was 0.24 +/- 0.12 mm; 96.3% were decentered 0.5 mm or less. There was a significant correlation between pIOL decentration and postoperative spherical aberration and coma-y. In the Artisan group, the mean SE changed from -9.90 +/- 2.74 D (range -4.00 to -14.50 D) to -0.20 +/- 0.42 D (range -0.75 to 0.50 D). Postoperatively, trefoil-y and spherical aberration increased (increase factors 3.32 and 6.84, respectively). Laboratory analysis confirmed the negative and positive spherical aberration profile of the Artiflex pIOL and Artisan pIOL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Artiflex pIOL implantation decreased spherical aberration, while Artisan pIOL implantation increased spherical aberration. Trefoil-y increased in both groups. These changes might be explained by incision size differences in relation to trefoil and differences in optic design in relation to spherical aberration.