We developed a platform for intravital bladder two-photon microscopy (TPM) in healthy wild-type mice. It was our aim to make intravital bladder TPM simple and reproducible for researchers with access to TPM. In this study, the intact murine bladder was examined by means of autofluorescence (AF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and different i.v. injected fluorescent dyes. All bladder layers with containing structures, such as cells, nerves, and vessels were detected in different colour-coded spectral channels, and shown in high-resolution images and real-time movies. The presented method opens up avenues for many future studies and applications, such as to reveal mechanisms and physiology in the natural state of the bladder. Researcher can use intravital bladder TPM to investigate events, such as migration and metabolism of (inflammatory) cells, nanoparticle uptake, or micro contractions in response to stimuli.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherCold Spring Harbor Laboratory - bioRxiv
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2018


  • cell-biology


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