Hidden risks associated with conventional short intermittent hemodialysis: A call for action to mitigate cardiovascular risk and morbidity

Bernard Canaud*, Jeroen P Kooman, Nicholas M Selby, Maarten Taal, Andreas Maierhofer, Pascal Kopperschmidt, Susan Francis, Allan Collins, Peter Kotanko

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

Abstract

The development of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) for end stage kidney disease patients is a success story that continues to save many lives. Nevertheless, intermittent renal replacement therapy is also a source of recurrent stress for patients. Conventional thrice weekly short HD is an imperfect treatment that only partially corrects uremic abnormalities, increases cardiovascular risk, and exacerbates disease burden. Altering cycles of fluid loading associated with cardiac stretching (interdialytic phase) and then fluid unloading (intradialytic phase) likely contribute to cardiac and vascular damage. This unphysiologic treatment profile combined with cyclic disturbances including osmotic and electrolytic shifts may contribute to morbidity in dialysis patients and augment the health burden of treatment. As such, HD patients are exposed to multiple stressors including cardiocirculatory, inflammatory, biologic, hypoxemic, and nutritional. This cascade of events can be termed the dialysis stress storm and sickness syndrome. Mitigating cardiovascular risk and morbidity associated with conventional intermittent HD appears to be a priority for improving patient experience and reducing disease burden. In this in-depth review, we summarize the hidden effects of intermittent HD therapy, and call for action to improve delivered HD and develop treatment schedules that are better tolerated and associated with fewer adverse effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-57
Number of pages19
JournalWorld journal of nephrology
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2022

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