OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the HSV-1 and -2 loads in BAL fluid (BALF) and clinical outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The general intensive care unit of the University Hospital Maastricht. PATIENTS: Five hundred and twenty-one BALF samples from 462 patients were included. Patients were divided into three groups; (1) patients admitted to the hospital <48 h before lavage (Community), (2) patients admitted to the ICU >48 h before lavage (ICU) and (3) the remaining patients (non-ICU group). INTERVENTIONS: No additional interventions were conducted. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: HSV-1 and HSV-2 loads were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HSV-1 DNA was detected in 4.3% (4/92) of samples in the community group, 15% (18/121) in the non-ICU group and in 32% (99/308) of the ICU group. In the age group <50 years HSV-1 DNA was less frequently isolated compared to the age group >or=50 years (16/129 (12%) versus 187/376 (25%), respectively, OR = 2.6; P < 0.001). HSV-1 loads of >10(5) genome equivalents (ge)/ml were associated with an increased 14-day in-hospital mortality compared to patients with a HSV-1 load <or=10(5) ge/ml in BALF (41 vs. 20%, respectively, P = 0.001). HSV-1 pneumonia was histologically proven in two patients with a HSV-1 load exceeding 10(5) ge/ml. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-1 occurred more in critically ill patients and high loads in BALF were associated with an increased mortality. The higher mortality observed in patients with HSV-1 load >10(5) ge/ml enforces its clinical relevance and necessitates to start randomized medical intervention studies.
Linssen, C. F. M., Jacobs, J. A., Stelma, F. F., van Mook, W. N., Terporten, P., Vink, C., Drent, M., Bruggeman, C. A., & Smismans, A. (2008). Herpes simplex virus load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is related to poor outcome in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Medicine, 34(12), 2202-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-008-1231-4