Background: The prothrombotic phenotype has been extensively described in patients with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, potential long-term hemostatic abnormalities are unknown.Objective: To evaluate the changes in routine hemostasis laboratory parameters and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) 6 months after COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) discharge in patients with and without venous thromboembolism (VTE) during admission.Methods: Patients with COVID-19 of the Maastricht Intensive Care COVID cohort with tPA ROTEM measurement at ICU and 6-month follow-up were included. TPA ROTEM is a whole blood viscoelastic assay that illustrates both clot development and fibrinolysis due to simultaneous addition of tissue factor and tPA. Analyzed ROTEM parameters include clotting time, maximum clot firmness (MCF), lysis onset time (LOT), and lysis time (LT).Results: Twenty-two patients with COVID-19 were included and showed extensive hemostatic abnormalities before ICU discharge. TPA ROTEM MCF (75 mm [interquartile range, 68-78]-59 mm [49-63]; P <= .001), LOT (3690 seconds [2963-4418]-1786 seconds [1465-2650]; P <= .001), and LT (7200 seconds [6144-7200]-3138 seconds [2591-4389]; P <= .001) normalized 6 months after ICU discharge. Of note, eight and four patients still had elevated fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations at follow-up, respectively. In general, no difference in median hemostasis parameters at 6-month follow-up was observed between patients with (n=14) and without (n=8) VTE, although fibrinogen appeared to be lower in the VTE group (VTE-, 4.3 g/L [3.7-4.7] vs VTE+, 3.4 g/L [3.2-4.2]; P = .05).Conclusions: Six months after COVID-19 ICU discharge, no persisting hypercoagulable or hypofibrinolytic profile was detected by tPA ROTEM. Nevertheless, increased D-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations persist up to 6 months in some patients, warranting further exploration of the role of hemostasis in long-term morbidity after hospital discharge.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12579
Number of pages8
JournalResearch and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • COVID-19
  • fibrinolysis
  • follow-up studies
  • hemostasis
  • thromboelastography

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