Hallux rigidus affects lower limb kinematics assessed with the Gait Profile Score

A.J.M. Cansel, J. Stevens*, W. Bijnens, A.M. Witlox, K. Meijer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)


Background: Previous research showed that hallux rigidus (HR) affects foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is unclear if HR affects lower limb kinematics as well.Research question: Does HR affect lower limb kinematics, and if so, is gait deviation correlated with patient-reported outcome?Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study, including 15 HR patients and 15 healthy controls who underwent three-dimensional gait analysis by using the Plug-in Gait lower body model. The Gait Profile Score (GPS), a gait index score describing gait deviation and composed out of nine Gait Variable Scores (GVS), and intersegmental range of motion of lower limb joints were assessed. Patient-reported outcome was assessed with the Foot Function Index (FFI) and Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ). Data were analysed with Student t-tests and Spearman rank correlations.Results: HR significantly affects gait, reflected by a higher GPS in HR subjects as compared to healthy controls. Gait deviation was seen in ankle flexion (GVS(ankle) (flexion)) and to a lesser extent in pelvic rotation (GVS(pelvic) (rotation)). Interestingly, these differences were not detected when lower limb kinematics were evaluated by comparing the intersegmental ranges of motion of these joints. Positive correlations were present between patient-reported outcomes and GPS, especially functional subdomains, were positively correlated with GPS and GVS(ankle flexion).Significance: This study demonstrated that HR, next to foot kinematics, additionally affects lower limb kinematics evaluated with an objective gait index score, i.e. GPS. The positive correlation between the GPS and patient-reported outcome can be seen as the first step in defining whether objectively measured gait indices can be used in considering surgery since most of the benefit of surgery will be expected in the patients with most gait deviation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-279
Number of pages7
JournalGait & Posture
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • Hallux rigidus
  • Kinematics
  • Gait analysis
  • Lower extremity
  • Gait Profile Score

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