Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß is required for the induction of skeletal muscle atrophy.

K.J.P. Koen Verhees, A.M.W.J. Schols, M.C. Kelders, C.M.H. Op den Kamp, J. van der Velden, R.C.J. Langen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Verhees KJ, Schols AM, Kelders MC, Op den Kamp CM, van der Velden JL, Langen RC. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta is required for the induction of skeletal muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301: C995-C1007, 2011. First published August 10, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00520.2010.-Skeletal muscle atrophy commonly occurs in acute and chronic disease. The expression of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) is induced by atrophy stimuli such as glucocorticoids or absence of IGF-I/insulin and subsequent Akt signaling. We investigated whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta), a downstream molecule in IGF-I/Akt signaling, is required for basal and atrophy stimulus-induced expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1, and myofibrillar protein loss in C2C12 skeletal myotubes. Abrogation of basal IGF-I signaling, using LY294002, resulted in a prominent induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA and was accompanied by a loss of myosin heavy chain fast (MyHC-f) and myosin light chains 1 (MyLC-1) and -3 (MyLC-3). The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) also induced the expression of both atrogenes and likewise resulted in the loss of myosin protein abundance. Genetic ablation of GSK-3 beta using small interfering RNA resulted in specific sparing of MyHC-f, MyLC-1, and MyLC-3 protein levels after Dex treatment or impaired IGF-I/Akt signaling. Interestingly, loss of endogenous GSK-3 beta suppressed both basal and atrophy stimulus-induced atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression, whereas pharmacological GSK-3 beta inhibition, using CHIR99021 or LiCl, only reduced atrogin-1 mRNA levels in response to LY294002 or Dex. In conclusion, our data reveal that myotube atrophy and myofibrillar protein loss are GSK-3 beta dependent, and demonstrate for the first time that basal and atrophy stimulus-induced atrogin-1 mRNA expression requires GSK-3 beta enzymatic activity, whereas MuRF1 expression depends solely on the physical presence of GSK-3 beta.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)C995-C1007
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology
Volume301
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

Keywords

  • glucocorticoids
  • E3 ubiquitin ligase
  • insulin-like growth factor I
  • myosin
  • proteolysis
  • GROWTH-FACTOR-I
  • UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME PATHWAY
  • DEPENDENT PROTEOLYTIC SYSTEM
  • FOXO TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
  • SIGNALING PATHWAYS
  • MYOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION
  • MYOTUBE HYPERTROPHY
  • PROTEIN-DEGRADATION
  • LIGASE ATROGIN-1
  • GENE-EXPRESSION

Cite this