Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared

Wim Groot, Henriëtte Maassen Van Den Brink

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Alternative hypotheses that explain the differences in the rate at which male and female workers are promoted to higher job levels are empirically tested. It is found that women are less frequently in jobs that offer promotion possibilities than men. However, given that women are in jobs that offer promotion opportunities, they are not less likely to be promoted to another job within the firm. That women have jobs that offer promotion less frequently than men is due to differences in treatment rather than differences in characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-226
Number of pages6
JournalEconomics Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1996


  • Internal labor markets
  • Male-female differentials
  • Promotion

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