Gla-Rich Protein Is a Potential New Vitamin K Target in Cancer: Evidences for a Direct GRP-Mineral Interaction

Carla S. B. Viegas, Marjolein Herfs, Marta S. Rafael, Jose L. Enriquez, Alexandra Teixeira, Ines M. Luis, Cynthia M. R. van't Hoofd, Alexandre Joao, Vera L. Maria, Sofia Cavaco, Ana Ferreira, Manuel Serra, Elke Theuwissen, Cees Vermeer, Dina C. Simes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Gla-rich protein (GRP) was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP) with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with. gamma-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the. gamma-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of. gamma-carboxylated GRP (cGRP)/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP) accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation- specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calciummineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.
Original languageEnglish
Article number340216
JournalBioMed Research International
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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