Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP), a multi site longitudinal cohort study focused on gene-environment interaction: objectives, sample characteristics, recruitment and assessment methods

GRP Investigators, L De Haan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

186 Citations (Web of Science)


Objective A longitudinal focus on geneenvironment vulnerability and resilience in both patients, their unaffected family members and non-related controls offers the opportunity to elucidate etiological and pathogenetic factors influencing the onset and course of psychotic disorders. The current paper delineates the objectives, sample characteristics, recruitment and assessment procedures of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychoses (GROUP) study. Methods A naturalistic longitudinal cohort study with assessments at baseline, after three and six years of follow-up. The study is conducted by a consortium of four university psychiatric centres, with their affiliated mental health care institutions in the Netherlands covering more than 7.5 million inhabitants. Extensive assessment of genetic factors, environmental factors, (endo)phenotypes, and outcome. Results At baseline, 1120 patients, 1057 siblings, 919 parents and 590 healthy controls were included. Conclusion The GROUP study will contribute to insight in risk and protective factors in the aetiology of non-affective psychotic disorders, and in the variation in their course and outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-221
JournalInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2012


  • schizophrenia
  • methodology
  • gene
  • environment
  • interaction
  • aetiology
  • longitudinal

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