Objectives: To define ultrastructural features accompanying to antitumor effects of gemcitabine, vinorelbine and cyclooxygenase inhibitors in C6 glioma cells in vitro. Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid and recent studies showed its antitumor activity in pediatric optic and pontine gliomas. Vinorelbine infusion induces a severe tumor site-pain in systemic cancers, but it is unknown whether algesia and inflammation contribute to its antitumor effects. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside-chemotherapeutic which was recently shown to act as a radiosensitizer in high-grade glioma. Some studies showed synergism of anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-inhibitors with microtubule inhibitors and gemcitabine. DMSO is a solvent and blocks both cylooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase, another target of gemcitabine. Rofecoxib is withdrawn from the market, yet we used it for investigational purposes, since it blocks cylooxygenase-2 1000-times more potently than cylooxygenase-1 and is also a selective inhibitor of crinophagy.
Methods: Plating efficacy, 3D-spheroid S-phase analysis with BrdU labelling and transmission electron micro-scopical analyses were performed.
Results: Vinorelbine induced frequent mitotic slippage/apoptosis and autophagy. Despite both DMSO and rofecoxib induced autophagy alone and in synergy, they reduced mitotic catastrophe and autophagy triggered by vinorelbine, which was also reflected by reduced inhibition of spheroid S-phase. Gemcitabine induced karyolysis and margination of coarse chromatin towards the nuclear membrane, abundant autophagy, gutta adipis formation and decrease in mitochondria, which were enhanced by DMSO and rofecoxib.
Conclusions: Detailed ultrastructural analysis of the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs may provide a broader insight about their actions and pave to develop better strategies in treatment of glioblastoma.
- C6 glioma
- Cyclooxygenase inhibitors
- BREAST-CANCER CELLS
- RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASE
- ARCUATE NUCLEUS
- LIPID DROPLETS