Game-Based Social Learning for Socially Sustainable Water Management

Joop de Kraker*, Astrid Offermans, Merel M. van der Wal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


An important aspect of the social sustainability of a proposed solution is acceptance by societal stakeholders. Acceptance is determined by the extent to which the solution matches with
stakeholder perspectives on the problem and preferred ways to deal with it. Social learning can contribute to the social sustainability of water management strategies by achieving a convergence in
perspectives among societal stakeholders. Serious games have proven to be effective in generating this type of social learning outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This article aims to clarify how a multi-player serious game on river management (Sustainable Delta) supports social learning among participants with initially diverging perspectives. Based on a conceptual
framework for game-based social learning, hypotheses and expectations were formulated and tested with quantitative and qualitative analyses of game sessions. Convergence of perspectives was
observed in 10 out of 12 gaming sessions, but could not, or could only to a limited extent, be explained by the presumed learning support mechanisms in the game’s design. This underlines the
importance of opening up the black box of serious games to determine how and why they work. If this is neglected, there is a clear risk that the design of games will be based on wrong, untested
assumptions and will be less effective in supporting social learning and social sustainability.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4646
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • serious games
  • game-based social learning
  • conceptual framework
  • social sustainability
  • water management


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