Pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal failure. Gallstones are common after SPK transplantation but little is known about the true incidence and etiology of gallstones in this group. We therefore evaluated the incidence of gallstones and the presence of transplant-related risk factors in patients after SPK and kidney transplantation alone (KTA). Data were evaluated of 56 consecutive patients who underwent SPK transplantation and compared the results with those of 91 consecutive nondiabetic patients who underwent KTA transplantation at the Leiden University Medical Center between 1987 and 1994. Of the 58 evaluable KTA patients, 20.7% developed gallstones during 7.7 yr of follow-up and in the SPK group 43.9% of the 41 evaluable patients developed gallstones during 7.1 yr of follow-up. Postoperative weight loss and cyclosporin A-related hepatotoxicity correlated with gallstone formation both in SPK and KTA patients. In addition, the duration of postoperative fasting and autonomic neuropathy correlated with gallstones in SPK patients. It is concluded that both in patients after SPK transplantation and in patients after KTA transplantation, the risk to develop gallstones is significantly increased. Physicians should be aware of the high incidence of gallstones in SPK recipients.