Forks in the road to e-mobility: An evaluation of instrument interaction in national policy mixes in northwest Europe

M. Dijk*, E. Iversen, A. Klitkou, R. Kemp, S. Bolwig, M. Borup, P. Møllgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Web of Science)


This paper evaluates how policy shaped the emergence of electric mobility in three countries, Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark, between 2010 and 2015. Whereas previous studies have looked at the effects of separate policy instruments, this paper gives insights in the interaction effects of instruments on the diffusion of battery electric cars between five policy areas. Based on analysis of synergetic, contradictory and pre-conditional effects, we find that an effective policy mix includes: fiscal incentives that mirror the actual carbon footprint of the respective vehicles; non-fiscal demand-side incentives; centrally financed and/or coordinated charging infrastructure; clarity regarding the choice of technology that will be supported. Moreover, development of a domestic, e-mobility-related industry and a high share of renewable energy strengthens the legitimization of e-mobility support. The findings help designing policy mixes in the transition to electric mobility.
Original languageEnglish
Article number475
Number of pages20
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

JEL classifications

  • q01 - Sustainable Development
  • o38 - Technological Change: Government Policy
  • r48 - Transportation Systems: Government Pricing and Policy


  • Carbon footprint
  • Computer science
  • Conditional effects
  • Coordinated charging
  • E mobilities
  • E-mobility
  • Electric vehicles
  • Energy management
  • Interaction effect
  • National policies
  • Policy evaluation
  • Policy instruments
  • Policy mixes
  • Renewable energies
  • Transition policy
  • electric vehicles
  • policy evaluation
  • transition policy
  • e-mobility
  • policy mixes

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