OBJECTIVE: We studied acute changes in markers of glycoxidative and lipoxidative stress, including oxidized LDL, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG), following two consecutive meals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women (27 with normal glucose metabolism [NGM], 26 with type 2 diabetes) received two consecutive fat-rich meals and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on two occasions. Glucose and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h following breakfast; lunch was given at 4 h. Oxidized LDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio, CEL, CML, and 3DG were measured at baseline and at 8 h. RESULTS: Fasting oxidized LDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio, 3DG, and CML were higher in women with type 2 diabetes compared with women with NGM and were comparable to the postprandial values at 8 h in NGM. Postprandial rises in the oxidized LDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and 3DG were similar in both groups. However, the oxidized LDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio increased more after the fat-rich meals, whereas CML and 3DG increased more after the carbohydrate-rich meals. After the fat-rich meals, the increase in the oxidized LDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio correlated with postprandial triglycerides, whereas the increase in 3DG was correlated with postprandial glucose. CONCLUSIONS: The acute changes in markers of glycoxidative and lipoxidative stress in both type 2 diabetes and NGM suggest that postabsorptive oxidative stress may partly underlie the association of postprandial derangements and cardiovascular risk.
Schindhelm, R. K., Alssema, M., Scheffer, P. G., Diamant, M., Dekker, J. M., Barto, R., Nijpels, G., Kostense, P. J., Heine, R. J., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Teerlink, T. (2007). Fasting and postprandial glycoxidative and lipoxidative stress are increased in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30(7), 1789-1794. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-2585