Factors associated with choice of antenatal, delivery and postnatal services between HIV positive and HIV negative women in Zambia

C. Muzyamba*, W. Groot, M. Pavlova, S.M. Tomini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Previous research has shown that developing countries account for the majority of maternal deaths around the world. Relatively high maternal mortality in developing countries has been linked to high HIV prevalence rates in these countries. Several studies have shown that women living with HIV are more vulnerable and are thus more likely to die during maternity than those who are not. Although there has been increased focus on this subject in contemporary research, the relationship between HIV status and maternal-care-utilization is not very well understood. It is not clear whether factors associated with professional maternal care utilization during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods are similar for HIV positive and HIV negative women. It is also not known whether being HIV positive has an impact on the choice of care (professional care or traditional birth attendants). Thus the aim of this study is to investigate the differences in factors affecting choice of care during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods between HIV positive and HIV negative women. We also investigate the effect of HIV positive status on choice of care.
Methods: By using the 2013-2014 Zambia Demographic Health Survey Data (ZDHS), we performed two different quantitative analyses. a) Regression analysis: to identify and compare factors associated with the likelihood of utilizing professional care during antenatal, at birth and postnatal periods between HIV positive and HIV negative women. b) Propensity score matching: to investigate the effect of being HIV positive on the choice of care (Professional care or TBAs).
Results: Our results show that reasons for choosing professional care during antenatal, at birth, and postnatal periods are the same for both HIV positive and HIV negative women. Further, we also showed that although the probability of utilizing professional care is slightly higher for HIV positive women, the difference is negligible.
Conclusion: We demonstrated that in Zambia, utilization of professional care among HIV positive women is not particularly high. We also demonstrate that although institutional care is desirable and an ideal solution for HIV positive women, insisting on institutional care when the health facilities lack adequate trained personnel, drugs, and equipment is counterproductive.
Original languageEnglish
Article number127
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019

JEL classifications

  • i11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets


  • Article
  • CARE
  • HIV
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient
  • Maternal health
  • Skilled attendants
  • Traditional birth attendants
  • Zambia
  • adolescent
  • adult
  • age distribution
  • controlled study
  • data base
  • demography
  • education
  • educational status
  • female
  • health care utilization
  • health insurance
  • health personnel attitude
  • health service
  • help seeking behavior
  • human
  • major clinical study
  • maternal welfare
  • obstetric delivery
  • obstetric procedure
  • perinatal period
  • prenatal care
  • prenatal period
  • propensity score
  • quantitative analysis
  • regression analysis
  • religion
  • risk factor
  • traditional birth attendant
  • women's health

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