Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

Rinske a Loeffen*, Rene van Oerle, Mathie P. G. Leers, Johannes A. Kragten, Harry Crijns, Henri M. H. Spronk, Hugo ten Cate

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148 +/- 53 vs. 122 +/- 42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.7 pM and 495(310-885) vs. 380(235-540) mu g/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145 +/- 52 vs. 100 +/- 44 vs. 98 +/- 33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95% CI 1.2-20.9] and 4.5 [1.1-18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0158355
Number of pages16
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2016


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