Factor Xa induces cytokine production and expression of adhesion molecules by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

N.H.M. Senden, G.M.A.A. Jeunhomme, J.W.M. Heemskerk, R.J. Wagenvoord, C. van 't Veer, H.C. Hemker, W.A. Buurman

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Department of Surgery, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands. n.senden@ah.unimaas.nl

Proinflammatory effects induced by the serine protease factor Xa were investigated in HUVEC. Exposure of cells to factor Xa (5-80 nM) concentration dependently stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, which was accompanied by polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion. The effects of factor Xa were blocked by antithrombin III, but not by the thrombin-specific inhibitor hirudin, suggesting that factor Xa elicits these responses directly and not via thrombin. IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha were not implicated, since neither the IL-1 receptor antagonist nor a TNF-neutralizing Ab could suppress the factor Xa responses. Active site-inhibited factor Xa and factor Xa depleted from gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues were completely inactive. The effector cell protease receptor-1 (EPR-1) seems not to be involved since anti-EPR-1 Abs failed to inhibit cytokine production. Moreover, neither the factor X peptide Leu83-Leu88, representing the inter-epidermal growth factor sequence in factor Xa that mediates ligand binding to EPR-1, nor the peptide AG1, corresponding to the EPR-1 sequence Ser123-Pro137 implicated in factor Xa binding, inhibited the factor Xa-induced cytokine production. In conclusion, these findings indicate that factor Xa evokes a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells, which requires both its catalytic and gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing domain. The receptor system involved in these responses induced by factor Xa remains to be established.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4318-4324
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998

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